In the late Nara period, financial burdens on the state increased, and the court began dismissing nonessential officials. Within it was placed the Great Buddha Daibutsu: a 16-metre-high, gilt-bronze statue. One of the former Seven Great Temples, Todaiji Temple serves as the head temple of the Kegon school of Buddhism. A network of roads connected the capital with remote provinces. In 740, a member of the Fujiwara clan, Hirotsugu, launched a rebellion from his base in Fukuoka, Kyushu. She may even have wanted to make Dōkyō emperor, but she died before she could act. NARA is the independent Federal agency that helps preserve our nation's history by overseeing the management of all Federal records. Some of these formerly "public people" were privately employed by large landholders, and "public lands" increasingly reverted to the shōen. [9][10] However, they were eventually subjugated by the Ritsuryō. Empress Genmei established the capital of Heijō-kyō (present-day Nara). The town of ancient temples, Nara In the early history of Japan, Nara prefecture was the center of the politics, the culture and the economy in Yamato Period, Asuka Period and Nara Period. The first authentically Japanese gardens were built in the city Nara at the end of the eighth century. 710 CE - 784 CE. The first years were not actually easy as Buddhism became one more tool in the struggle for power over the imperial dynasty by the Soga clan over the rival Mononobe and Nakatoni clans. By the late eleventh century, the city was popularly called Kyoto (capital city), the name it has had ever since. Kōken charged the ruling emperor with colluding with Nakamaro and had him deposed. Shosoin stores more than 10,000 paper documents so-called Shōsōin documents (正倉院文書). The foreign influences are not new to Japanese society. Kōken reascended the throne as Empress Shōtoku (r. 764–770). During the Nara Period (710–94), women painted their face with a white powder called oshiroi, and in the Heian Period (794–1185), a white facial color continued to stand as a symbol of beauty. The government built large temples in Heijokyo and, in 741, the Emperor Shomu issued an imperial edict to each Province and made them build kokubunji and kokubunniji. Overshadowed by its more famous neighbor Kyoto, Nara is omitted from many a time-pressed tourist's itinerary. Nara Period Japan flourished economically and culturally, providing a lavish life style for its aristocrats. (1994) "Nara and Heian Periods, A.D. 710–1185". During the Nara period (710-794), women applied a white powder called oshiroi in their face. These are records written in the reverse side of the sutra or in the wrapping of imported items that survived as a result of reusing wasted official documents. The small scrolls, dating from 770, are among the earliest printed works in the world. Japanese society was village-based and focused on agriculture and a religion that worshipped natural spirits known as kami. Shōmu declared himself the "Servant of the Three Treasures" of Buddhism: the Buddha, the law or teachings of Buddhism, and the Buddhist community. Although the codification of law was probably begun earlier, the Taihō code (701) completed previous efforts. The Chinese local mission could not return home due to the An Lushan Rebellion and remained in Japan. Imported treasures show cultural influences of Silk Road areas, including China, Korea, India, and the Islamic Empire. Nara Period (710-794) Before the Taiho Code was established, the capital was customarily moved after the death of an emperor because of the ancient belief that a place of death was polluted. Local administration gradually became more self-sufficient, while the breakdown of the old land distribution system and the rise of taxes led to the loss or abandonment of land by many people who became the "wave people" (furōsha). This epoch of Japanese history is known as the Nara Period. Factional fighting at the imperial court continued throughout the Nara period. The Nara Period (奈良時代 Nara jidai ) is the historical period beginning in 710, the year the capital was moved from Fujiwarakyō to Heijōkyō (the modern-day city of Nara), and ending in 784, when the capital was moved to Nagaokakyō. One form of Buddhist music is called "Shomyo." The National Archives and Records Administration Act of 1984 amended the records management statutes to divide records management oversight responsibilities between the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the General Services Administration (GSA). Legal codes based on Chinese models were compiled to replace the less-structured native tradition of legal process. Fighting at the imperial court continued throughout the Nara period. The Nara period started with the establishment of a new capital for the Imperial Court. Roads linked Nara to provincial capitals, and taxes were collected more efficiently and routinely. In 729, they arrested Nagaya and regained control. The Nara period (奈良時代, Nara jidai) of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. Religion, like many other aspects of society, changed in important ways during the Heian period. Because the capital (Heijokyo) was located in Nara, it is … 'Fuseya', which were free rest houses, are thought to have been the first facilities in Japan for travelers staying overnight. By the mid-eighth century, shōen (landed estates), one of the most important economic institutions in prehistoric Japan, began to rise as a result of the search for a more manageable form of landholding. Buddhism in the Nara and Heian periods was mostly for the state and for the elite. Economic and administrative activity increased during the Nara period. The capital at Nara, which gave its name to the new period (710-94), was styled after the grand Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907) capital at Chang'an and was the first truly urban center in Japan. The official name of the capital was Heijo-kyo, but it was called the Capital of Nara because of its location. However, as a major outbreak of smallpox spread from Kyūshū in 735, all four brothers died two years later, resulting in temporary reduction in the Fujiwara dominance. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The spree may have been an important place for the emperors and ministers to discuss various issues in the country. The most important commission was the colossal image of the Daibutsu. Nara artisans produced refined Buddhist sculpture and erected grand Buddhist temples. The era came to an end when the Emperor Kanmu (737 – … The capital was moved shortly (for reasons described later in this section) to Kuni-kyō (present-day Kizugawa) in 740–744, to Naniwa-kyō (present-day Osaka) in 744–745, to Shigarakinomiya (紫香楽宮, present-day Shigaraki) in 745, and moved back to Nara in 745. Throughout 2010 the city celebrated its 1300th anniversary. Earlier during this period, Prince Nagaya seized power at the court after the death of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Nara artisans produced refined Buddhist sculpture and erected grand Buddhist temples. The Nara period might rightfully be called the Shōmu Era, for the capital in Nara during Emperor Shōmu’s reign (reigned +724 to 749) was home to between 70,000 to 200,000 people and covered roughly 4.2 kilometers from east to west and 4.7 kilometers from north to south. NARA is the independent Federal agency that helps preserve our nation's history by overseeing the management of all Federal records. Nara is the capital of ancient Japan. Why is Nara important? That change greatly influenced the development of the economy, government, and society. Nara is situated in an area known as the Nara Basin. The desire to be beautiful is as old as history. During Shōmu's reign, the Tōdai-ji (literally Eastern Great Temple) was built. Nara period (710-794 years) During the Nara era, sake brewing by koji began to spread in earnest. The origins of the Japanese ryokan can be traced back to the so-called 'fuseya' of the Nara Period (710-784). The 8th century was largely known as the Nara period, a time period where Heijō-kyō (currently Nara) was Japan’s capital. 隼人 : オーストロネシア系の古代日本部族'. Although defeated, it is without doubt that the Emperor was heavily shocked about these events, and he moved the palace three times in only five years from 740, until he eventually returned to Nara. During the Nara Period the government officially supported Buddhism and a succession of large temples were built at important parts of the capital to protect the emperor and the state. Shingon is an indigenous sect with close affiliations to original Indian, Tibetan, and Chinese Buddhist thought founded by Kukai (a… Tendai originated in China and is based on the Lotus Sutra, one of the most important sutras of Mahayana Buddhism. The Nara period covers most of that time, from year 710 until 794. The … It soon had a population of 200,000, representing nearly 4 percent of the country's population, and some 10,000 people worked in government jobs. The National Archives and Records Administration Act of 1984 amended the records management statutes to divide records management oversight responsibilities between the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the General Services Administration (GSA). A massive project that took place during this period was the construction of the Todaiji Temple. In the 8th century, many technologies and cultural aspects of neighboring China were brought to Japan. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The new capital was called Heijō-kyō and is known today as Nara. 1998. The National Institute of Japanese Literature is Japan’s premier archive of historical documents and strives for their preservation as well as their analysis. The spree may have been an important place for the emperors and ministers to discuss various issues in the country. However, Nara is home to many important scenic and historical sites, and today preserves its main sights much more attractively than Kyoto within Nara Park and neigh… Tracing back to 728, Todaiji Temple, known as “Great Temple of the East” was established during the Nara period, before Kyoto was declared capital of Japan. The Nara Period in ancient Japan. This Buddha was identified with the Sun Goddess, and a gradual syncretism of Buddhism and Shinto ensued. Choose from 53 different sets of nara period flashcards on Quizlet. Twenty-three surviving sites with the same number of component structures have been so designated. The Imperial Palace contained 120 hectares, with the emperor’s residence, other palaces, governmental offices and major Buddhist temple. Buddhist influence at court increased under the two reigns of Shōmu's daughter. Shōsōin documents contribute greatly to the research of Japanese political and social systems of the Nara period, while they even indicate the development of Japanese writing systems (such as katakana). He served as Governor-General in Annam or Chinese Vietnam from 761 through 767. Many Japanese students, both lay and Buddhist priests, studied in Chang'an and Luoyang. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Under the Act, NARA is responsible for adequacy of documentation and records d… The Chinese pattern of centralized government that was first adopted in the Nara period (710–784) gradually changed as the growth of private estates ( shōen ), exempt from taxation, encroached upon the public domain and reduced the substance of state administration. Learn nara period with free interactive flashcards. Tracing back to 728, Todaiji Temple, known as “Great Temple of the East” was established during the Nara period, before Kyoto was declared capital of Japan. This white facial color continued to be the standard of beauty in Japan until the Heiain Period (794-1185). Corrections? The Chinese pattern of centralized government that was first adopted in the Nara period (710–784) gradually changed as the growth of private estates (shōen), exempt from taxation, encroached upon the public domain and reduced the substance of state administration. Balhae sent its first mission in 728 to Nara, which welcomed them as the successor state to Goguryeo, with which Japan had been allied until Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Smallpox and the Epidemiological Heritage of Modern Japan: Towards a Total History", "Emperor, Aristocracy, and the Ritsuryō State: Court Politics in Nara", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nara_period&oldid=999920028, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2018, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 16:38. The Asuka period came to an end and the Nara Period (710–794) began when the capital of Heijo-kyo was established in the present-day city of Nara. Coins were minted, if not widely used. In the sculpture of the Nara period (710–784) clay figures and statues made in the dry-lacquer process (lacquer applied to a solid core of wood or lacquered cloths placed over some kind of armature) attained great popularity. However, the rise of Balhae north of Silla destabilized Japan-Silla relations. The Heian period (平安時代, Heian jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. Overshadowed by its more famous neighbor Kyoto, Nara is omitted from many a time-pressed tourist's itinerary. One may also ask, why was the Nara period important? 710 CE. Gorgeous visuals from some of Japan’s most revered art pieces now available for download.. Japanese Nara Period The Nara Period Article Establishment of first permanent capital at Nara; emergence of Japanese patterns of administration and institutions. Japanese people just believed their animism, the origine of "Shinto"(神道) until Asuka Period. More than a thousand years ago, … In the Nara period, Buddhism developed thanks to protection by the government as well as the ideology of Chingo kokka and Hoe (Buddhist mass) and prayers to protect the nation were often held. This white facial color continued to be the standard of beauty in Japan until the Heiain Period (794-1185). Each is a modern-day treasure house of artwork from those early centuries. The Nara period was important because it represented the first substantial attempt to centralize Japan's government and culture into a more formal... See full answer below. Choose from 53 different sets of nara period flashcards on Quizlet. With the adoption of the imperial title tennō, translated from the Chinese t’ien-huang, or “heavenly emperor,” the Chinese concept of the emperor as the supreme symbol of central government rule was incorporated into the native Japanese interpretation of the emperor as also the leading Shintō cult figure. Nara is situated in an area known as the Nara Basin. This new religion contained many ideas and images that were radically different from the concerns of native Shinto. They put Emperor Shōmu, the prince by Fuhito's daughter, on the throne. Kōken abdicated in 758 on the advice of her cousin, Fujiwara no Nakamaro. 710 CE - 784 CE. This epoch of Japanese history is known as the Nara Period. What should I buy from Nara? [8] They are believed to be of Austronesian origin and had a unique culture that was different from the Japanese people. Nara period. Nara had a role as a Buddhist centre before it rose to political and social prominence in the 8 th century. The Nara period started with the establishment of … These historical documents include a wide gamut of items, from scrolls embroidered in golden decal to 600-year-old bound compilations … During the Nara period, Buddhist sculpture becomes increasingly realistic. This list is of Japanese structures dating from the Nara period (710–794) that have been designated Important Cultural Properties (including *National Treasures). In 710 the imperial capital was shifted a short distance from Asuka to Nara. The obsession with having a light skin tone as the symbol of beauty has been documented in the Diary of Lady Murasaki and the Tale of Genji. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in … Imperial family members, leading court families such as the Fujiwara, and Buddhist priests all fought for influence. In the strict sense, it lasted only 74 years from 710 to 784 when the Emperor Kanmu transferred the capital to Nagaokakyo. The Ashikaga, in turn, was a branch of the Minamoto clan. The National Institute of Japanese Literature is Japan’s premier archive of historical documents and strives for their preservation as well as their analysis. Japanese society during this period was predominately agricultural and centered on village life. It became the capital of Japan in 710 AD. Many students who returned from China, such as Kibi no Makibi, were promoted to high government posts. The Federal Register contains: Federal agency regulations Proposed Rules and Notices of interest to the public Executive orders Proclamations Other Presidential documents The OFR The Buddhist Kofukuji temple is established at Nara, main temple of the Japanese Fujiwara clan. Buddhism was one of the many religions that spread along the lengths of the Silk Roads, and was often transmitted by pilgrims, monks and indeed merchants themselves. Japanese people just believed their animism, the origine of "Shinto"(神道) until Asuka Period. The Nara period (奈良時代, Nara jidai) of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. Decentralization of authority became the rule despite the reforms of the Nara period. Earlier Nara Buddhism drew directly upon Chinese traditions and catered to elites. [3], With the spread of written language, the writing of Japanese poetry, known in Japanese as waka, began. The 8th century was largely known as the Nara period, a time period where Heijō-kyō (currently Nara) was Japan’s capital. 710 CE. 710 CE. The largest and longest-surviving collection of Japanese poetry, the Man'yōshū, was compiled from poems mostly composed between 600 and 759 CE. The Kaifūsō, a collection of Chinese poems by Japanese poets, and the Manyō-shū, an anthology of native poetry, were produced. The Japanese capital is moved from Fujiwara-kyo to Nara (aka Heijokyo). Omissions? The Nara Period was also a period of flourishing ties with China. Easy to access and convenient. During the Nara Period the government officially supported Buddhism and a succession of large temples were built at important parts of the capital to protect the emperor and the state. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. ... an important Shinto source and classic of Japanese poetry. It became the capital of Japan in 710 AD. The Emperor moved the capital to Nara, and the country expanded culturally and socially. The Nara Period was also marked by the development of two powerful schools of Buddhism, Tendai and the more esoteric Shingon, and the ascendancy of Buddhism in general. ... Bushido in Japan was important for many reasons. There was a strong emphasis on elaborate ritual and chanting that was so elaborate only highly trained professionals could perform it was an important part of the types of Buddhism dominant in this period. Relations with the Korean kingdom of Silla were initially peaceful, with regular diplomatic exchanges. The imperial state extended its frontiers to include southern Kyushu during the 8th century and conquered the Ezo (Emishi) people in northern Honshu following a series of campaigns (late 8th–early 9th century). The Federal Register (the daily journal of the Federal government) is published every business day by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)'s Office of the Federal Register (OFR). The Buddhist Kofukuji temple is established at Nara, main temple of the Japanese Fujiwara clan. The Hayato people (隼人) in Southern Kyushu frequently resisted rule by the Yamato dynasty during the Nara period. The Nara Period saw the establishment of Buddhism as the religion of the court and, by extension, of the state, and a new height in intellectual and cultural achievements as exemplified in the building of the Great Hall of the Tōdaiji temple, as well as the compilation of Japan’s first chronicles, the Kojiki (古事記, 712) and the Nihon Shoki (日本書紀, 720). Updates? During the Nara Period the government officially supported Buddhism and a succession of large temples were built at important parts of the capital to protect the emperor and the state. Concentrated efforts by the imperial court to record its history produced the first works of Japanese literature during the Nara period. The capital at Nara was modeled after Chang'an, the capital city of the Tang dynasty. Nara soon had a population of 200,000; 10% were monks. The Imperial Palace contained 120 hectares, with the emperor’s residence, other palaces, governmental offices and major Buddhist temple. One may also ask, why was the Nara period important? For the next 75 years, with minor gaps, Nara was the seat of government, and the old custom of changing the capital with…, During the reign of the empress Gemmei (707–715) the site of the capital was moved to the northwest sector of the Nara Basin. The Nara Period in ancient Japan. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Japan during the Heian period lived in relative isolation in relation to the cosmopolitan Nara period Nara was very well connected to Chinese centers However, in the Heian period, they lived in related isolation Different from the Nara period Opportunity for Japanese art to gaze inward to fashion a unique cultural identity … Outside the Nara area, however, there was little commercial activity, and in the provinces the old Shōtoku land reform systems declined. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyoto.It is a period in Japanese history when Chinese influences were in decline and the national culture matured. What we in the West usually think of as traditional Japanese culture developed in the Nara Period, beginning around 710 AD. [1] Empress Genmei established the capital of Heijō-kyō (present-day Nara). Like its T’ang Chinese prototype, the Japanese central government consisted of a Council of State (Dajōkan) and ministries of Rites, Personnel, Public Works, War, Justice, and Revenue. Shōtoku had the charms printed to placate the Buddhist clergy. Shorelines and stone settings were naturalistic, different from the heavier, earlier continental mode of constructing pond edges. Japanese society was village-based and focused on agriculture and a religion that worshipped natural spirits known as kami. However, Nara is home to many important scenic and historical sites, and today preserves its main sights much more attractively than Kyoto within Nara Park and neigh… These elites underwrote the cost of temples and turned to religion for protection of the state. Fuhito was succeeded by four sons, Muchimaro, Umakai, Fusasaki, and Maro. Two such gardens have been found at excavations; both were used for poetry-writing festivities.[6]. As Empress Kōken (r. 749–758) she brought many Buddhist priests into court. The Nara Period (Nara Jidai) of ancient Japan (710-794 CE), so called because for most of that time the capital was located at Nara, then known as Heijokyo, was a short period of transition prior to the significant Heian Period. Many of the Japanese artworks and imported treasures from other countries during the era of Emperors Shōmu and Shōtoku are archived in Shōsō-in of Tōdai-ji temple. The Nara Period was also a period of flourishing ties with China. They are called Shōsōin treasures and illustrate the cosmopolitan culture known as Tempyō culture. To make Buddhism the spiritual base of centralised political authority, provincial temples ( kokubunji) were established throughout Japan. Under the Act, NARA is responsible for adequacy of documentation and records d… The sect was especially important to Kōfukuji Temple 興福寺 (Nara) and Yakushiji Temple 薬師寺 (Nara), both among the Seven Great Temples of the Nara period, and both today still serving as the main temples of Japan’s Hossō sect. In 710 the imperial capital was shifted a short distance from Asuka to Nara. Japan during the Heian period lived in relative isolation in relation to the cosmopolitan Nara period Nara was very well connected to Chinese centers However, in the Heian period, they lived in related isolation Different from the Nara period Opportunity for Japanese art to gaze inward to fashion a unique cultural identity An Office of Deities (Jingikan) supervised Shintō official ceremonies. It was during this period that imperial power was cemented and the dogma of imperial succession from the sun goddess, Amaterasu, was codified in the Kojiki and Nihonshoki. Before the Taihō Code was established, the capital was customarily moved after the death of an emperor because of the ancient belief that a place of death was polluted. The Japanese capital is moved from Fujiwara-kyo to Nara (aka Heijokyo). In 792 universal conscription was abandoned, and district heads were allowed to establish private militia forces for local police work. One student named Abe no Nakamaro passed the Chinese civil examination to be appointed to governmental posts in China. Why is Nara important? The Nara period was a period in Japan's history which, broadly speaking, lasted 84 years from 710 when the Empress Genmei transferred the capital to Heijokyo to 794 when the Emperor Kanmu transferred the capital to Heiankyo. The hallmark of this Nara period was the jori system, the collection and distribution of all lands-taxable to the government. Buddhism began to spread throughout Japan during the ensuing Heian period (794-1185), primarily through two major esoteric sects, Tendai (Heavenly Terrace) and Shingon (True Word). Large Buddhist monasteries were built in … In addition, preserved within the current repertory of Gagaku there are other native forms of song like Saibara and Roei and there is also the popular song form called Imayo. The Federal Register contains: Federal agency regulations Proposed Rules and Notices of interest to the public Executive orders Proclamations Other Presidential documents The OFR Eventually, to return control to imperial hands, the capital was moved in 784 to Nagaoka-kyō and in 794 to Heian-kyō (literally Capital of Peace and Tranquility), about twenty-six kilometers north of Nara. Nara period, (ad 710–784), in Japanese history, period in which the imperial government was at Nara, and Sinicization and Buddhism were most highly developed. The Heian period saw the growth of the Tendai sect brought from China by Saicho, and the Shingon sect brought from China by Kukai. Another major cultural development of the era was the permanent establishment of Buddhism. The Nara Period was also a period of flourishing ties with China. [4] This, and other Nara texts, used Chinese characters to express the sounds of Japanese, known as man'yōgana.[5]. The town of ancient temples, Nara In the early history of Japan, Nara prefecture was the center of the politics, the culture and the economy in Yamato Period, Asuka Period and Nara Period. The central government established temples called kokubunji in the provinces. The jori system was expensive to administer, but attempted to take control from the powerful landowners and return it to the Emperor. During the Kamakura era, Japan was ruled by a branch of the ancient Taira clan, which lost the Genpei War (1180 - 1185) to the Minamoto clan, but managed to seize power anyway. The Nara Period marked the height of the Chinese-inspired ritsuryō (律令) system of government as well as the active introduction of other aspects of Chinese civilisation. During the Nara period (710-794), women applied a white powder called oshiroi in their face. These historical documents include a wide gamut of items, from scrolls embroidered in golden decal to 600-year-old bound compilations … It is generally thought that brewing techniques using koji … Nara was Japan's first truly urban center. Although these efforts stopped short of making Buddhism the state religion, Nara Buddhism heightened the status of the imperial family. This list is of Japanese structures dating from the Nara period (710–794) that have been designated Important Cultural Properties (including *National Treasures). Two official histories, the Koji-ki and Nihon shoki, were compiled. Some of Japan's literary monuments were written during the Nara period, including the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, the first national histories, compiled in 712 and 720 respectively; the Man'yōshū, an anthology of poems; and the Kaifūsō, an anthology written in Chinese by Japanese emperors and princes. Except for a five-year period (740–745), when the capital was briefly moved again, it remained the capital of Japanese civilization until Emperor Kanmu established a new capital, Nagaoka-kyō, in 784, before moving to Heian-kyō, modern Kyoto, a decade later in 794. [2] In many other ways, the Japanese upper classes patterned themselves after the Chinese, including adopting the Chinese writing system, Chinese fashion, and a Chinese version of Buddhism. Twenty-three surviving sites with the same number of component structures have been so designated. The obsession with having a light skin tone as the symbol of beauty has been documented in the Diary of Lady Murasaki and the Tale of Genji. Historical period of Japan, AD 710 to 794, Economic, livelihood, and administrative developments, Cultural developments and the establishment of Buddhism, Dolan, Ronald E. and Worden, Robert L., ed. During the Nara Period the government officially supported Buddhism and a succession of large temples were built at important parts of the capital to protect the emperor and the state. An ancient capital city ), women applied a white powder called oshiroi in their face 729, they eventually... Images that were radically different from the court continued throughout the Nara period article establishment of new. 平安時代, Heian jidai ) is the independent Federal agency that helps preserve our nation 's history overseeing. Period, Buddhist sculpture and erected grand Buddhist temples the spree may have been an important source. Base of centralised political authority, provincial temples ( kokubunji ) were established throughout Japan all Federal.... 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